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Details for anatomical structure: bone marrow

EndoNet ID: ENC00018

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bone marrow, , Medulla ossium

General information

The tissue filling the cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; the soft, spongy tissue found in the centre of most large bones that produces the cellular components of blood: white cells, red cells and platelets

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0038433

Larger structures

  • circulatory_system__hematopoietic_system
  • immune_system


  • B-lymphocyte
  • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues_follicular
  • prolymphocyte
  • neutrophil_granulocyte
  • osteoclast
  • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues
  • monocyte
  • stromal_cell_of_bone_marrow
  • eosinophil_granulocyte
  • red_blood_cell
  • lymphocyte
  • basophil_granulocyte
  • macrophage

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: lipocalin 2

    • NGAL was expressed in bone marrow and in tissues that are prone to exposure to microorganisms. [1]
  • Hormone: VEGF-165

    • VEGF, its receptors (VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2) and neuropillin-1 (NRP-1) are expressed at variable levels in bone marrow. [2]
  • Hormone: IL-11

  • Hormone: CLC

  • Hormone: IL-15

  • Hormone: CXCL11

  • Hormone: MCP-2

  • Hormone: IL-7

  • Hormone: PGI2

  • Hormone: PGE2

  • Hormone: IL-1F8

  • Hormone: HCC-1

  • Hormone: MPIF-1

  • Hormone: PARC

  • Hormone: adipsin

  • Hormone: osteocalcin

  • Hormone: fibronectin

  • Hormone: bone sialoprotein 2

  • Hormone: osteomodulin

  • Hormone: annexin A2

  • Hormone: sclerostin

  • Hormone: WNT10B

  • Hormone: BAFF

  • Hormone: defensin alpha 1

  • Hormone: stem cell growth factor

  • Hormone: NmU-25

  • Hormone: GDF-3

  • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

  • Hormone: CD5L

  • Hormone: proteinase 3

  • Hormone: elastase-2

  • Hormone: GnRH-II (Isoform 1)


  • Receptor: PPARgamma1

    • mRNA being detectable in spleen, bone marrow, liver, testis, skeletal muscle and brain [4]
  • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

  • Receptor: TLR2

  • Receptor: M-CSF-1-R

    Induced phenotype:

    • myeloid cell differentation
  • Receptor: thrombospondin receptor

  • Receptor: laminin receptor

  • Receptor: B-CAM

  • Receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    Induced phenotype:

    • angiogenesis
      • Recruitment of circulating endothelial precursors to sites of active angiogenesis is mediated through VEGFR2. [5]
  • Receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1

    Induced phenotype:

    • hematopoiesis
      • Inhibition of VEGFR1, but not VEGFR2, blockes HSC cell cycling, differentiation and hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow suppression. Placental growth factor (PlGF), which signals through VEGFR1, restored early and late phases of hematopoiesis following bone marrow suppression. PlGF promotes recruitment of VEGFR1(+) HSCs from a quiescent to a proliferative bone marrow microenvironment, favoring differentiation, mobilization and reconstitution of hematopoiesis. [6]
  • Receptor: neuropilin 1

  • Receptor: ALCAM

  • Receptor: glypican 1

  • Receptor: TNFR1

    Induced phenotype:

    • atherosclerosis
      • In atherosclerosis, TNF considered to promote plaque growth and progression. [7]
      • Bone-marrow derived p55 TNFR promotes atherosclerosis development by enhancing lesional foam-cell formation and by promoting expression of pro-atherosclerotic chemokines, like MCP-1. [8]
  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

  • Receptor: Probable G-protein coupled receptor 132

  • Receptor: relaxin receptor 2