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Details for anatomical structure: lung

EndoNet ID: ENC00074

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lung, , Pulmones (dexter et sinister)

General information

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax; the organs of respiration in which aeration of the blood takes place; the right lung is sligthly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes, while the left has but two lobes

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0048365

Larger structures

  • parts_of_human_body


  • bronchi
  • alveolar_macrophage
  • T-lymphocyte
  • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues_follicular
  • continuous_vascular_endothelial_cell_of_blood_vessels_and_lymphatics
  • neutrophil_granulocyte
  • chondroblast
  • memory_cell_T
  • muscularis_of_bronchus
  • monocyte
  • lymphocyte
  • mesenchyme_cell
  • macrophage
  • fibroblast
  • pulmonary_vessels
  • propria_mucosa_of_bronchus
  • epithelial_cell_with_microvilli
  • cell:plasma_cell
  • suppressor_T_cell
  • smooth_muscle_cell
  • endothelial_cell
  • leukocyte
  • killer_T_cell
  • helper_T_cell_Th1
  • eosinophil_granulocyte
  • helper_T_cell_Th2
  • bronchial_epithelial_cell
  • mast_cell
  • pneumocyte_type_II
  • basophil_granulocyte

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: TRH

  • Hormone: CNTF

    • CNTF mRNA is widely expressed in the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and testis of the rat, in addition to preferential expression in the sciatic nerve. [1]
  • Hormone: ANG-4

    • Highly expressed in the lung with much lower levels found in other tissues. [2]
  • Hormone: lymphotactin

  • Hormone: IL-15

  • Hormone: CXCL11

  • Hormone: MCP-2

  • Hormone: MDC

  • Hormone: MIP-3 beta

  • Hormone: BMP5

  • Hormone: BMP2

  • Hormone: BMP4

  • Hormone: IL-1F8

  • Hormone: GAS-2

  • Hormone: TARC

  • Hormone: MCP-4

  • Hormone: MPIF-1

  • Hormone: PARC

  • Hormone: AGRP

  • Hormone: eotaxin

    • Human eotaxin is an 8,3-kDa, 74-amino-acid residue, nonglycosylated polypeptide secreted by endothelial cells, fibroblasts, macrophages, ciliated and nonciliated bronchial epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, chondrocytes, and eosinophils. [3]
  • Hormone: decorin

  • Hormone: laminin-5B

  • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

  • Hormone: galectin-1

  • Hormone: neuromedin B

  • Hormone: Dkk2

  • Hormone: WIF-1

  • Hormone: Dkk2

  • Hormone: sFRP-3

  • Hormone: sclerostin

  • Hormone: twisted gastrulation

  • Hormone: crossveinless-2

  • Hormone: laminin alpha-4 chain

  • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

  • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

  • Hormone: semaphorin 3F

  • Hormone: BAFF

  • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

  • Hormone: WISP1

  • Hormone: fractalkine

  • Hormone: SEMA4D

  • Hormone: CXCL16

  • Hormone: IL-17D

  • Hormone: endothelin-1

  • Hormone: endothelin-2

  • Hormone: CYR61

  • Hormone: AGR2

  • Hormone: PD-L1

  • Hormone: uteroglobin

  • Hormone: uteroglobin-related protein 1

  • Hormone: IL-13

    • Increased lung inflammation and the overexpression of soluble mediators such as IL-13, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma and VEGF are important in the pathogenesis of human as well as experimental emphysema. [4]
  • Hormone: IL-1 beta

  • Hormone: IFN-gamma

  • Hormone: VEGF-165

  • Hormone: ECM1a

  • Hormone: SMOC-1 isoform 1

  • Hormone: soluble PSGL-1

  • Hormone: elastase-2

  • Hormone: VCAM1 soluble form

  • Hormone: vasorin

  • Hormone: IL-1F5

  • Hormone: IL-28A

  • Hormone: IL-28B

  • Hormone: IL-29

  • Hormone: TNFSF10

  • Hormone: FGF-23

  • Hormone: amphiregulin

    Influenced by:

    • IGF-1R
      in lung
      • Apoptosis inhibition by amphiregulin through an IGF1-dependent survival pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells: amphiregulin activates the IGF1 receptor that in turn induces the secretion of amphiregulin and IGF1. [5]
  • Hormone: cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1

  • Hormone: chemerin


  • Receptor: dopamine receptor D2

  • Receptor: V1a

  • Receptor: V2

    • expression of the vasopressin V2 receptor in fetal and adult human lung was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Northern blot analysis, and DNA sequencing. [6]
  • Receptor: PLXND1

  • Receptor: sst4

  • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

  • Receptor: THRA1

  • Receptor: THRB1

  • Receptor: RAR-beta

  • Receptor: RAR-alpha

    Induced phenotype:

    • role in early lung morphogenesis
  • Receptor: RXR-gamma

  • Receptor: RXR-beta

  • Receptor: GR-beta

  • Receptor: PPARgamma1

    • In this paper it is not clear whether it is γ1 or another γ receptor isoform it only says: " PPARγ expression occurs in the lung in alveolar type II cells" [7]
  • Receptor: ER-alpha

    Induced phenotype:

    • bronchial asthma
      • Estrogen seems to have a strong promoting effect on pathogenesis of bronchial asthma via ER alpha. [8]
  • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

  • Receptor: calcitonin-receptor-like receptor

  • Receptor: Tie2

  • Receptor: EP1

    Induced phenotype:

    • Pulmonary venous smooth muscle contraction
  • Receptor: EP2

  • Receptor: EP4

  • Receptor: PGI receptor

  • Receptor: TLR7

  • Receptor: TLR9

  • Receptor: TLR10

  • Receptor: PPAR-gamma2

  • Receptor: complement receptor 3

  • Receptor: angiotensin II type 1 receptor

  • Receptor: CD44 isoform 1

  • Receptor: laminin receptor

  • Receptor: frizzled 1

  • Receptor: frizzled 2

  • Receptor: PTC1

  • Receptor: neuropilin 1

  • Receptor: CysLTR1

  • Receptor: CysLTR2

  • Receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1

  • Receptor: sVEGF-R1

  • Receptor: NMU-R2

  • Receptor: PACAP-R-1

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of cell proliferation
      • In the small cell lung tumor cell line NCI-H345, PACAP stimulates cell proliferation through the activation of type II binding sites. [9]
  • Receptor: PAF-R

  • Receptor: RXR-alpha

  • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

  • Receptor: IL-18R1

  • Receptor: EDAR

  • Receptor: TLR4

  • Receptor: D6

  • Receptor: fibroblast growth factor receptor-like 1

  • Receptor: ER-beta

    Induced phenotype:

    • positive regulation of angiogenesis
      • Estradiol therapy reverses the loss of vessels associated with pulmonary hypertension in the lungs in both male and female rats. Estradiol stimulates the growth of new capillaries. The estrogen-effect is likely mediated through ER-beta. [10]
  • Receptor: SIGLEC-7

  • Receptor: vasorin

  • Receptor: FPRL1

  • Receptor: oxoeicosanoid receptor 1

  • Receptor: CRF-R1

  • Receptor: CRF-R2

  • Receptor: CB1

  • Receptor: CHRNA1-2

  • Receptor: MRC2

  • Receptor: IGF-1R


    • amphiregulin
      • Apoptosis inhibition by amphiregulin through an IGF1-dependent survival pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells: amphiregulin activates the IGF1 receptor that in turn induces the secretion of amphiregulin and IGF1. [5]
  • Receptor: PRLR

    Induced phenotype:

    • organ maturation
      • PRL induces maturation of the lung. [11]
    • surfactant production
      • Prolactin induces surfactant production. [12]
    • stimulation of phospholipid synthesis
      • PRL has marked effects on lipid metabolism. In mammals, PRL stimulates phospholipid synthesis in the fetal lung. [11]
  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

    Induced phenotype:

    • pulmonary fibrosis
      • Fibrosis, the formation of excess fibrous connective tissues, is associated with a number of pathological conditions. Recently, a new aspect of LPA1 signaling has been uncovered in pulmonary fibrosis, suggesting LPA1 signaling as a new therapeutic target in this disease. LPA levels were remarkably increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid after bleomycin-induced lung injury and resulted in pulmonary fibrosis, vascular leakage, and mortality. These pathologies were markedly reduced in Lpar1-deficient mice. [13]
  • Receptor: Probable G-protein coupled receptor 132

  • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

  • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1


    • interleukin 6
      • SP1 stimulates IL-6 prodcution in airway smooth muscle cells. [14]
  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

    Induced phenotype:

    • adherens junction assembly
      • Intravenous S1P infusion results in rapid and significant reduction of lung weight gain and significantl reduces microvascular permeabilit and inflammation after acute lung injury, consistent with systemic barrier enhancement. [15]
      • S1P induces cortical reorganization of the endothelial cytoskeleton and the distribution, assembly and stabilization of adherens junctions and focal adhesion complexes on the cell membrane via S1P3 receptor signaling and activation of Rac. [16]
  • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

  • Receptor: ADAM17

  • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

    • (PTH2 receptor mRNA) ... is also detected in pancreas, placenta and lung on northern blots [17]
  • Receptor: NPR1

    • All three natriuretic peptide receptors are highly expressed in the lung. [18]

    Induced phenotype:

    • dilation of pulmonary airways
      • All three natriuretic peptide receptors are highly expressed in the lung. ANP stimulates the dilation of pulmonary airways and blood vessels via NPR-A. [18]