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Details for anatomical structure: osteoclast

EndoNet ID: ENC00096

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osteoclast, osteophage, Osteoclastocytus

General information

The main function is to degrade and absorb old bone matrix; they are activated by parathyroid hormon.

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011461

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: BMP-3

      • Hormone: osteopontin

      • Hormone: CD40-L

      • Hormone: bone sialoprotein 2

      • Hormone: TGF-beta 1

      • Hormone: annexin A2

      • Hormone: interleukin 6

      • Hormone: RANKL


      • Receptor: IL-1RII

      • Receptor: IL-1RI

      • Receptor: calcitonin receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • osteoporosis
          • The discovery that calcitonin is a selective inhibitor of osteoclastic activity more than 40 years ago led to the concept that calcitonin deficiency might be the cause of osteoporosis and that its administration might be the cure. [1]
      • Receptor: PTHR1

      • Receptor: OPG

        Induced phenotype:

        • inhibition of osteoclast differentation
      • Receptor: M-CSF-1-R

      • Receptor: ER-alpha

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of osteoclast proliferation
          • Estrognes attenuate osteclastogenesis and life span and stimulate osteoclast apoptosis via cell-autonomous actions mediated by DNA binding-independent action of ER alpha. [2]
        • positive regulation of ossification
          • Activation of Er alpha results in preserved tickness and number of trabeculae and preserved thickness and volumetric density of cortical bone. [3]
          • ER alpha but not ER beta or AR is of importance for the trabecular bone-sparing effect of estrogens. [3]
      • Receptor: EP3

      • Receptor: EP4

      • Receptor: RANK

      • Receptor: vitronectin receptor

        • The vitronectin receptor, one member of the integrin superfamily, has been shown to be expressed in osteoclasts. [4]

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of bone resorption
          • The colocalization of vitronectin receptor and vinculin in podosome-like structures may indicate its role in the attachment of resting and migrating osteoclasts to bone surface. [5]
      • Receptor: ER-beta

        Induced phenotype:

        • negative regulation of osteoclast proliferation
          • Estrogen inhibits osteoclastogenesis. [6]
      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • regulation of bone resorption
          • The activation of CaSR leads to the down-regulation of osteoclastic activity. [7]