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Details for anatomical structure: spleen

EndoNet ID: ENC00130

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spleen, , Spleen

General information

An organ that produces lymphocytes, filters the blood, stores blood cells and destroys those that are aging; it is located on the left side of the abdomen between the stomach and the diaphragm, composed of white and red pulp, the white consists of lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue, the red consists of venous sinusoids between which are splenic cords; the stroma of both red and white pulp are reticular fibers and cells

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0049557

Larger structures

  • circulatory_system__hematopoietic_system
  • parts_of_human_body
  • immune_system


  • B-lymphocyte
  • cell:plasma_cell
  • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues_follicular
  • T-lymphocyte
  • platelet
  • suppressor_T_cell
  • smooth_muscle_cell
  • endothelial_cell
  • helper_T_cell_Th1
  • killer_T_cell
  • leukocyte
  • helper_T_cell_Th2
  • lymphocyte
  • red_blood_cell
  • mast_cell
  • macrophage
  • fibroblast

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: GAS-6

    • Isoform 1 is the predominant form in spleen. [1]
  • Hormone: lymphotactin

  • Hormone: CLC

  • Hormone: PDGFC

  • Hormone: CXCL11

  • Hormone: MCP-2

  • Hormone: MDC

  • Hormone: MIP-3 beta

  • Hormone: BMP2

  • Hormone: IL-1F5

  • Hormone: BCA-1

  • Hormone: HCC-1

  • Hormone: HCC-4

  • Hormone: CCL28

  • Hormone: chondromodulin 2

  • Hormone: galectin-1

  • Hormone: sFRP-3

  • Hormone: secretin

  • Hormone: TNFSF12

  • Hormone: APOD

  • Hormone: BAFF

  • Hormone: WISP1

  • Hormone: defensin alpha 1

  • Hormone: SEMA4D

  • Hormone: CXCL16

  • Hormone: stem cell growth factor

  • Hormone: leukocystatin

  • Hormone: PD-L1

  • Hormone: GDF-3

  • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

  • Hormone: CD5L

  • Hormone: Interleukin-34

    • Predominantly expressed in spleen. Also detected in a range of other tissues including heart, brain, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, testis, ovary, small intestine, prostate and colon [1]
  • Hormone: Granulin-1

  • Hormone: TNFSF10

  • Hormone: FGF-23


  • Receptor: dopamine receptor D5

  • Receptor: PPARgamma1

    • PPARγ1 had the broadest tissue expression(...)PPARγ1 mRNA was found in the heart, large and small intestines, colon, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. [3]
    • mRNA being detectable in spleen, bone marrow, liver, testis, skeletal muscle and brain [4]
  • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

  • Receptor: EP1

  • Receptor: TLR2

  • Receptor: TLR4

  • Receptor: TLR7

  • Receptor: TLR9

  • Receptor: TLR10

  • Receptor: RP105

    • Polymerase chain reaction analysis of isolated primary human cell populations confirms that mRNA exists in spleen B lymphocytes and monocytes but not T lymphocytes [5]
  • Receptor: PPAR-gamma2

  • Receptor: frizzled 10

  • Receptor: TNFRSF18 isoform 1

    • TNFRSF18 mRNA is expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lung and brain. [6]

    Induced phenotype:

    • negative regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • TNFRSF18 and its ligand may modulate T lymphocyte survival in peripheral tissues and perhaps during interaction with the vascular endothelium. [6]
  • Receptor: TNFRSF13C

    • Northern blot analysis on human tissues revealed that TNFRSF13C is expressed as a 4.5-kb mRNA in the secondary lymphoid organs. High levels of TNFRSF13C mRNA were detected in the spleen. [7]

    Induced phenotype:

    • negative regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • TNFRSF13C has a important role in mediating normal immune function. [8]
      • Mice expressing a mutant form of this receptor show severe defects in B-cell development and survival and in T lymphocate-dependent immune respose. [9]
  • Receptor: PLXND1

  • Receptor: CysLTR1

  • Receptor: CysLTR2

  • Receptor: CD72

  • Receptor: apelin receptor

  • Receptor: NMU-R2

  • Receptor: PACAP-R-1

    Induced phenotype:

    • negative regulation of IL-10 production
      • In murine spleen cells and thymocytes, PACAP inhibits IL-10 production via both cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent transduction pathways. [10]
  • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

  • Receptor: IL-18R1

  • Receptor: TACI

  • Receptor: CCR9

  • Receptor: complement C3d receptor

  • Receptor: TCCR

  • Receptor: SIGLEC-7

  • Receptor: DR4

  • Receptor: TNFRSF25

    • TNFRSF25 expression is restricted predominantly to lymphoid tissues, spleen. [11]

    Induced phenotype:

    • positive regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • TNFRSF25 is up-regulated by alternative splicing in response to lymphocyte activation, this means that it is ideally placed to play a role in controlling lymphocyte proliferation. [11]
      • The restricted expression of TNFRSF25 suggests that like Fas receptor it may play a role in immune development and function. [11]
  • Receptor: MRC2

  • Receptor: PRLR

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

  • Receptor: Probable G-protein coupled receptor 132

    Induced phenotype:

    • lymphocyte homeostasis
      • Disruption of G2A in mice leads to immunological disorders. The G2A(-/-) mice develop enlarged spleens with abnormal expansion of both T- and B-lymphocytes. [12]
  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

  • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

  • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

  • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

  • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

  • Receptor: Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1

    • issues that gave positive signals included placenta, skin, inflamed appendix, lung, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, thymus, and spleen [13]