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Details for anatomical structure: colon

EndoNet ID: ENC00184

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colon, , Colon

General information

The principal part of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0019927

Larger structures

  • skeleton_muscle
  • muscle
  • parts_of_human_body
  • digestive_system
  • large_intestine


  • smooth_muscle_cell
  • helper_T_cell_Th1
  • helper_T_cell_Th2

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: lipocalin 2

    • Induction of NGAL synthesis in epithelial cells of human colorectal neoplasia and inflammatory bowel diseases. [1]
  • Hormone: GROalpha

  • Hormone: PlGF-1

    • While the three forms are present in most placental tissues, only PlGF-1 is found in the colon and mammary carcinomas. [2]
  • Hormone: lymphotactin

  • Hormone: IL-15

  • Hormone: MCP-2

  • Hormone: MIP-3 beta

  • Hormone: BMP2

  • Hormone: IL-1F8

  • Hormone: MIP-3 alpha

  • Hormone: TARC

  • Hormone: MCP-4

  • Hormone: CCL28

  • Hormone: neuromedin B

  • Hormone: SFRP1

  • Hormone: sFRP-2

  • Hormone: gremlin-1

  • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

  • Hormone: cardiotrophin 1

  • Hormone: QRFP

  • Hormone: fractalkine

  • Hormone: GDF-8

  • Hormone: IHH

  • Hormone: GRP

  • Hormone: RELMbeta

  • Hormone: AGR2

  • Hormone: mucin-2

  • Hormone: EGF

  • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL5

  • Hormone: FAM3B-b

  • Hormone: PYY (1-36)


  • Receptor: CaSR

    Induced phenotype:

    • colonocyte differentiation
      • The CaSR plays an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of colonocytes. [3]
      • The CaSR promotes the expression of E-cadherin and suppresses the activation of ß-catenin/ TCF factor, therby regulating the differentiation of colonic epithelial cells. [4]
  • Receptor: glucocorticoid receptor

  • Receptor: PPARgamma1

    • PPARγ1 had the broadest tissue expression(...)PPARγ1 mRNA was found in the heart, large and small intestines, colon, kidney, pancreas, spleen and skeletal muscle. [5]
  • Receptor: histamine H4 receptor

  • Receptor: neurotensin receptor type 1

  • Receptor: PGF2-alpha receptor

  • Receptor: PPAR-gamma1

  • Receptor: laminin receptor

  • Receptor: glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor

  • Receptor: frizzled 2

  • Receptor: NPY4-R

  • Receptor: PLXND1

  • Receptor: CysLTR1

  • Receptor: apelin receptor

  • Receptor: GRP-R

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
      • Bombesin causes a significant growth in both the atrophic gut mucosa of rats fed an elemental diet and the injured mucosa of rats. This suggests a possible protective role for bombesin in the maintenance of gut mucosal structure after an injury that results in either atrophy or mucosal disruption. [6]
      • In adult rats, bombesin stimulates the proliferation of the colon. [7]
  • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

  • Receptor: IL-18R1

  • Receptor: PXR

  • Receptor: TNFRSF25

    • Very low level expression was seen on the colon cancer cell line HT-29. [8]
    • A transcript of 3.2 kb was detected in lymphocyte-rich tissues such as the colon. [9]

    Induced phenotype:

    • positive regulation of lymphocyte apoptosis
      • TNFRSF25 is up-regulated by alternative splicing in response to lymphocyte activation, this means that it is ideally placed to play a role in controlling lymphocyte proliferation. [8]
      • The restricted expression of TNFRSF25 suggests that like Fas receptor it may play a role in immune development and function. [8]
      • TNFRSF25 was detected in lymphocyte-rich tissues such as the thymus, colon, intestine, and spleen. [9]
  • Receptor: MRC2

  • Receptor: PRLR

    Induced phenotype:

    • colorectal cancer
      • Prolactin is thought to increase colorectal tumor agressivity. [10]
  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

  • Receptor: CCK-1

    Induced phenotype:

    • induction of smooth muscle contraction
      • In the human colon, the CCK-induced contraction of the smooth muscle is mediated through the CCK1 receptor. [11]
  • Receptor: CCK-2

    Induced phenotype:

    • induction of smooth muscle contraction
      • The CCK2 receptors mediate an inhibitory effect on human colonic smooth muscle and an inhihitory action of CCK on motor function of human distal colon. [12]