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Details for anatomical structure: keratinocyte

EndoNet ID: ENC00222

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keratinocyte, malpighian cell,

General information

produces keratin in the process of differentiating into the dead and fully keratinized cells of the stratum corneum

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0045842

Larger structures


      Secreted hormones

      • Hormone: PAI-1

        • The protease inhibitor PAI-1 has an essential role in cell motility, and its growth factor-initiated transcription in keratinocytes is regulated by USF elements. [1]
      • Hormone: MIG

      • Hormone: TGF-beta 1

        • TGFbeta1, a potent keratinocyte growth inhibitor, has been shown to be overexpressed in keratinocytes in certain inflammatory skin diseases. [2]
      • Hormone: vitamin D3

        • The main source of vitamin D is its synthesis in human skin. 7-Dehydrocholesterol converts into cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) as a result of UV radiation. [3]
        • The major source of vitamin D (D3 cholecalciferol and D2 ergocalciferol) is synthesis from 7-dehydrocholesterol in the keratinocytes of the skin. [4]
      • Hormone: PTHLH

      • Hormone: IP-10

      • Hormone: cathelicidin

        • Keratinocyte synthesis and processing of cathelicidin contribute to skin innate immunity by forming a direct antimicrobial defense barrier that supplements circulating immune cells. [5]

        Influenced by:

        • VDR
          in keratinocyte
          • We provide evidence that the CAMP gene is a direct target of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) that mediates the strong up-regulation of CAMP in response to treatment of cells with vitamin D3 [6]
      • Hormone: CXCL11

      • Hormone: IL-18

      • Hormone: IL-1F5

        • In vitro-cultured keratinocytes contained ~10-fold more IL-1{delta} mRNA relative to IL-1{epsilon} mRNA. [7]
      • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

      • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

      • Hormone: ECM1b

      • Hormone: CTGF

      • Hormone: ectodysplasin-A

      • Hormone: CST6

      • Hormone: PD-L1

      • Hormone: BD-2

      • Hormone: IL-23

      • Hormone: galectin-7

      • Hormone: FABP5

        • Is highly expressed in psoriatic skin.
      • Hormone: EGF

      • Hormone: FGF-2

      • Hormone: PAI-2

      • Hormone: IL-1F9-1


      • Receptor: MC1R

      • Receptor: CD44 isoform 1

      • Receptor: macrophage-stimulating protein receptor

        Induced phenotype:

        • wound healing
          • The MSP/RON (receptor for MSP) system promotes wound healing. [8]
      • Receptor: frizzled 3

      • Receptor: integrin alpha-6/beta-4

      • Receptor: integrin alpha-3/beta-1

      • Receptor: EDAR

      • Receptor: CaSR

        Induced phenotype:

        • keratinocyte differentiation
          • Epidermal expression of CaSR is required for the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes mediated by the stringent control of extracellular calcium levels. [9]
      • Receptor: IL-15R alpha

      • Receptor: ADAM17

      • Receptor: ALCAM

      • Receptor: TrpV4-A

        Induced phenotype:

        • thermoception
          • TRPV4 is essential for the desensitizing warmth-evoked current responses. [10]
          • Keratinocytes can detect warm temperatures by mechanisms that are apparently TRPV4-dependent. [10]
      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

      • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

      • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

        Induced phenotype:

        • positive regulation of cell growth
          • A strong mitogenic effect of SPC was observed in a large number of cell types, such as human keratinocytes. [11]
          • Of the high-affinity SPC-GPCRs identified so far, GPR4 mediated stimulation of cell growth. [12]
      • Receptor: VDR

        • Epidermal keratinocytes not only synthesize vitamin D by a photochemical process, they also contain the vitamin D receptor. [13]


        • cathelicidin
          • We provide evidence that the CAMP gene is a direct target of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) that mediates the strong up-regulation of CAMP in response to treatment of cells with vitamin D3 [6]