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Details for anatomical structure: epithelial cell

EndoNet ID: ENC00244

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epithelial cell, cell of epithelium,

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0044695

Larger structures

  • eccrine_gland
  • parts_of_human_body


    Secreted hormones

    • Hormone: lipocalin 2

      • NGAL expressed in granulocytes and epithelial cells in pathological conditions, such as inflammation and malignancy. [1]
    • Hormone: alpha-AGP

      • AGP, a highly glycosylated polypeptide chain, is expressed in human liver and in other cells, including human breast epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and cultured human granulocytes and monocytes. [2]
    • Hormone: laminin gamma-3 chain

    • Hormone: IL-11

      • IL-11 is produced by a variety of stromal cells including fibroblasts, epithelial cells and osteoblasts. [3]
    • Hormone: ICAM-1

    • Hormone: IL-18

    • Hormone: GROalpha

    • Hormone: ENA-78

    • Hormone: IL-7

    • Hormone: PDGFD

    • Hormone: IL-15

    • Hormone: sVEGFR-2

      • Skin epithelium is also a source of circulating sVegfr-2. [4]
    • Hormone: CTGF

    • Hormone: laminin gamma-2 chain

    • Hormone: AGR2

    • Hormone: uteroglobin

    • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

    • Hormone: laminin beta-3 chain

    • Hormone: IL-32

    • Hormone: HB-EGF

      Influenced by:

      • PAF-R
        in epithelial_cell
        • PAFR transduces the signal to EGFR via ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of transmembrane HB-EGF. [5]
    • Hormone: PGE2

      • The invasion of epithelial cells in vitro by C. parvum results in the rapid expression of anti-microbial peptides (e.g., beta-defensins) and the inflammatory chemokines including IL-8, TNF-alpha, and prostaglandin E2, etc. [6]
    • Hormone: TNF-alpha

    • Hormone: BD-2

      • Infection of human epithelial cells with mycobacteria induces HBD-2 mRNA expression in vitro. [7]
    • Hormone: BD-1

    • Hormone: galectin-7

    • Hormone: EGF

    • Hormone: osteopontin

    • Hormone: IL-1F9-1

    • Hormone: Granulin-1


    • Receptor: H1

    • Receptor: H2

    • Receptor: PPAR-gamma1

    • Receptor: glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor

    • Receptor: hepatocyte growth factor receptor

      Induced phenotype:

      • branching morphogenesis
        • CD100/Sema4D, as well as scatter factor, triggers invasive growth - this phenomenon is a complex program including branching morphogenesis, in which cells acquire polarity and form tubules arranged like branches of a tree. [8]
      • positive regulation of cell growth
        • CD100/Sema4D, as well as scatter factor, triggers invasive growth - this phenomenon is a complex program including cell-cell-dissociation and anchorage-independent growth. [8]
    • Receptor: EGFR isoform a

    • Receptor: PAF-R


      • HB-EGF
        • PAFR transduces the signal to EGFR via ADAM10-dependent proteolysis of transmembrane HB-EGF. [5]
    • Receptor: TLR4

    • Receptor: IL-1RI

    • Receptor: integrin alpha-5/beta-1

    • Receptor: CaSR

    • Receptor: IL-15R alpha

    • Receptor: TrpV4-A

      Induced phenotype:

      • negative regulation of cell volume
        • TRPV4 channel is the only pathway mediating the swelling-activated Ca2+ entry required to achieve a full RVD in human tracheal epithelial cells. [9]
        • Human airway epithelia show a typical Ca2+-dependent cell regularoty volume decrease (RVD) under hypotonic conditions. [10]
        • Impaired RVD response in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelia is caused by a misregulation of TRPV4, suggesting that hypotonic activation of TRPV4 channels is cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent. [9]
    • Receptor: TNFR1

    • Receptor: melanocortin receptor 5

    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

    • Receptor: mineralcorticoid receptor

      Induced phenotype:

      • multicellular organismal water homeostasis
        • The classical effects of MR signalling are in epithelial tissues where activation promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion, and is therefore crucial for salt and water retention. [11]
    • Receptor: Interleukin-22 receptor subunit alpha-1

      • issues that gave positive signals included placenta, skin, inflamed appendix, lung, gastrointestinal tract, lymph node, thymus, and spleen [12]