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Details for anatomical structure: astrocyte

EndoNet ID: ENC00284

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astrocyte, spider cell, stellate cell, Astrocytus

General information

macroglia; glial cell of the central nervous system; builds the blood-brain barrier with its procceses; makes the exchange, transport and distribution of molecules possible

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0011358

Larger structures

  • area_postrema_of_pons
  • isocortex
  • glial_cell_of_central_nervous_system
  • brain
  • peripheral_nerve_system_element
  • epiphysis
  • pituitary_gland_of_diencephalon
  • arcuate_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
  • spinal_cord
  • hippocampus
  • tegmentum_of_mesencephalon
  • internal_ear
  • cerebral_cortex
  • amygdaloid_body
  • suprachiasmatic_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
  • posterior_raphe_nucleus_of_midbrain
  • cerebellar_cortex
  • brain_stem
  • periventricular_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
  • caudate_nucleus
  • thalamus
  • cerebellum
  • corpus_striatum
  • corpus_callosum
  • pallidum
  • substantia_nigra
  • central_nerve_system_element
  • medulla_oblongata
  • supra-optic_nucleus
  • lateral_hypothalamic_area
  • reticular_part_of_substantia_nigra
  • pyramidal_layer_of_hippocampus
  • circulatory_system__hematopoietic_system
  • olfactory_bulb
  • red_nucleus
  • parts_of_human_body
  • hypothalamus
  • ventromedial_nucleus_of_hypothalamus
  • white_matter
  • nerve


  • bergmann_glia

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: RANTES

    • RANTES promotes growth and survival of human first-trimester forebrain astrocytes. [1]
  • Hormone: ADNF

  • Hormone: CXCL11

  • Hormone: NPY

  • Hormone: metallothionein 3

    • The hypothetical model describes the process of secretion of MT-3, from the astrocytes into the extracellular milieu, through its interaction with Rab3A, 14-3-3 zeta, Exo84p. [2]
  • Hormone: APOD

  • Hormone: laminin-5

  • Hormone: thrombospondin 1

  • Hormone: gremlin-1

  • Hormone: Cystatin-C

  • Hormone: ADNP

    • Furthermore, ADNP-like immunoreactivity was identified in conditioned media from astrocytes, and the concentration increased after treatment with VIP. [3]
  • Hormone: erythropoietin

  • Hormone: FGF-1 isoform 1

  • Hormone: FGF-2

  • Hormone: GFAP


  • Receptor: apelin receptor

  • Receptor: complement receptor 3

  • Receptor: GRP-R

  • Receptor: CaSR

    Induced phenotype:

    • astrocyte differentiation
      • CaSR regulates the differentiation of astrocyte by stimulating the release of parathyroid hormone-related prootein (PTHrP). [4]
  • Receptor: ADAM17

  • Receptor: complement C3d receptor

  • Receptor: GLAST

    Induced phenotype:

    • excitotoxcicity
      • The glutamate receptor GLAST maintains low synaptic glutamate levels to terminate glutamate signaling and prevent pathologic excitotoxicity. [5]
  • Receptor: GLT1

    Induced phenotype:

    • termination of excitatory nerve signals
      • The astrocyte glutamate transporter GLT1 is responsible for significant portions of glutamate transport from the synaptic cleft, therby regulating synaptic transmission and preventing exitotoxicity. [6]
    • motor neuron loss
      • The glutamate transporter GLT1 triggers motor neuron loss in mutant SOD1-mediated diseases, pointing at the fact that GLT1 plays a role in disease propagation rather than initiation. [6]
  • Receptor: PRLR

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of cell proliferation
      • Prolactin induces the proliferation of astrocytes. [7]
  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

    Induced phenotype:

    • astrocyte development
      • A study using LPA1-null astrocytes clearly identified the involvement of this receptor in LPA-mediated astrocyte proliferation. [8]
      • Astrocytes primed by LPA increase neuronal differentiation, likely through as yet unidentified soluble factors, and this activity is dependent on activation of LPA1 and in astrocytes. [9]
  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

    Induced phenotype:

    • astrocyte differentiation
      • Astrocytes primed by LPA increase neuronal differentiation, likely through as yet unidentified soluble factors, and this activity is dependent on activation of LPA2 in astrocytes. [9]
  • Receptor: CX3CR1

  • Receptor: Syndecan-4

    • Syndecan 4 is expressed exclusively by astroglia. [10]