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Details for anatomical structure: thalamus

EndoNet ID: ENC00413

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thalamus, cerebral ganglion, dorsal thalamus, Thalamus

General information

The large part of the diencephalon located dorsal to the hypothalamus and excluding the subthalamus and the medial and lateral geniculate bodies; it includes the major motor and somatosensory relay nuclei, nuclei that project to association areas, and the intralaminar nuclei

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0000498

Larger structures

  • brain
  • central_nerve_system_element


  • glial_cell_of_central_nervous_system
  • astrocyte
  • microglial_cell_in_central_nervous_system
  • oligodendrocyte
  • bergmann_glia

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: apelin-13

  • Hormone: apelin-28

  • Hormone: apelin-31

  • Hormone: apelin-36

  • Hormone: fractalkine


  • Receptor: NMU-R2

  • Receptor: mGluR4

  • Receptor: CRF-R1

  • Receptor: dopamine receptor D2

  • Receptor: dopamine receptor D5

  • Receptor: NPSR1

    Induced phenotype:

    • arousal
      • The arousal-promoting effect of NPS might be partially mediated by NPSRs expressed in thalamic midline nuclei, as this brain structure is known to act as a relay between arousal centers of the brainstem and the cortex. [1]