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Details for messenger / hormone: gremlin-1

EndoNet ID: ENH00511

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  • increased in high glucose protein 2
  • cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein
  • DAN domain family member 2
  • cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein
  • DAN domain family member 2
  • gremlin-1
  • cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1
  • proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein
  • IHG-2
  • down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein
  • GREM1
  • CKTSF1B1
  • DAND2
  • DRM
  • PIG2

General information

  • Gremlin plays an important role in limb development and neural crest cell differentiation. [1]
  • The bone morphogenic protein antagonist gremlin regulates proximal-distal patterning of the lung. [2]
  • Bone morphogenetic proteins induce gremlin, a protein that limits their activity in osteoblasts. [3]
  • GREMLIN and DANTE are secreted antagonists for BMPs and SLITs. [4]
  • Gremlin is a 184 amino acid protein and a member of the cysteine knot superfamily. [1]
  • Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia. [5]
  • Drm/Gremlin and Dan, two homologous secreted antagonists of bone morphogenic proteins, have been shown to regulate early development, tumorigenesis, and renal pathophysiology. [6]


Hormone function

  • development and growth
    • embryogenesis

    Chemical classification

    Links to other resources

    UniProt O60565
    Ensembl ENST00000300177
    KEGG hsa:26585
    • Anatomical structure: chondrocyte

    • Anatomical structure: astrocyte

    • Anatomical structure: brain

    • Anatomical structure: fibroblast

    • Anatomical structure: neuron

    • Anatomical structure: colon

    • Anatomical structure: large_intestine

    • Anatomical structure: ovary


    CellVascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2
    bone marrow Present
    • angiogenesis
    continuous vascular endothelial cell of blood vessels and lymphatics Present
    • VEGF-165
    microvascularendothelial cell Present
    • von Willebrand factor
    Müllers radial cell of retina Present
    • regulation of neural retina development
    sinusoidal endothelial cell Present
    • regulation of endothelial cell differentiation