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Details for anatomical structure: testis

EndoNet ID: ENC00140

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testis, testes, Testis

General information

One of the two male reproductive glands located in the cavity of the scrotum; they produce sperm and male sex hormones

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0049986

Larger structures

  • parts_of_human_body
  • gonads


  • cell:plasma_cell
  • Leydig_cell_of_testis
  • mast_cell
  • mesenchyme_cell
  • macrophage
  • fibroblast

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: IGF-1

  • Hormone: CNTF

    • CNTF mRNA is widely expressed in the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney and testis of the rat, in addition to preferential expression in the sciatic nerve. [1]
  • Hormone: IL-15

  • Hormone: PDGFC

  • Hormone: hepcidin

  • Hormone: IL-1F8

  • Hormone: MIP-3 alpha

  • Hormone: CCL27

  • Hormone: AGRP

  • Hormone: MCH

  • Hormone: chondromodulin 2

    • Weakly expressed.
  • Hormone: sFRP-2

  • Hormone: twisted gastrulation

  • Hormone: TNFSF18

  • Hormone: semaphorin 3C

  • Hormone: semaphorin 3D

  • Hormone: WISP-2

  • Hormone: WISP3

  • Hormone: fractalkine

  • Hormone: SEMA4D

  • Hormone: QRFP

  • Hormone: NPB23

  • Hormone: NPB29

  • Hormone: DHH

  • Hormone: Cystatin-C

  • Hormone: CST8

  • Hormone: EG-VEGF

  • Hormone: BD-7

  • Hormone: BD-8

  • Hormone: BD-1

  • Hormone: ECM1a

  • Hormone: insulin-like peptide INSL6

  • Hormone: slit-3 isoform 1

  • Hormone: androstenedione

  • Hormone: dehydro-3-epiandrosterone

  • Hormone: IL-28A

  • Hormone: IL-28B

  • Hormone: IL-29

  • Hormone: FAM3B-b

  • Hormone: FAM3A

  • Hormone: FGF-23

  • Hormone: Oxytocin-Neurophysin 1


  • Receptor: CRF-R1

  • Receptor: melanocortin receptor 5

  • Receptor: melanocortin receptor 3

  • Receptor: galanin receptor 3

  • Receptor: ACTH receptor

    • Melanocortin type 2 receptor is also expressed in the mouse fetal testis. [3]

    Induced phenotype:

    • androgen biosynthetic process
      • The effects of ACTH on fetal/neonatal androgen production could be directly mediated through melanocortin receptors on the fetal-type Leydig cells or indirectly mediated through another cell type. [4]


    • testosterone
      • The testicular melanocortin type 2 receptors appear to be functionally active since ACTH will stimulate testosterone production by the fetal and neonatal mouse testis which both contain fetal-type Leydig cells although the effects are lost in the postpubertal animal. [3]
  • Receptor: PRLR

    Induced phenotype:

    • maturation of germ cells
      • Prolactin induces maturation of germ cells. Prolonged suppression of prolactin (PRL) in immature male rats inhibits the spermatocyte-spermatid conversion process, alters leydig cell morphology, decreases accessory sex organ weight and increases serum LH levels without a significant alteration in serum FSH concentration. Amelioration of these effects by exogenous PRL strongly indicates that in the absence of PRL excess titers of endogenous LH fail to exert an influence on the spermatogenic activity of maturing testes. [5]
    • impotence
      • In humans, hyperprolactinemia has been shown to be associated with impotence. [6]
  • Receptor: PPARgamma1

    • mRNA being detectable in spleen, bone marrow, liver, testis, skeletal muscle and brain [7]
  • Receptor: TLR5

  • Receptor: MC1R

  • Receptor: frizzled 9

  • Receptor: frizzled 2

  • Receptor: PLXND1

  • Receptor: NMU-R1

  • Receptor: NMU-R2

  • Receptor: EphA6

  • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v2

  • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

  • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

  • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 12

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

    Induced phenotype:

    • reproduction
      • S1P3 null mice were fertile but the litter sizes were slightly smaller. This suggests a role of S1P3 in reproduction, in agreement with the expression of these receptors in the gonads. [8]
  • Receptor: relaxin receptor 2

    Induced phenotype:

    • Cryptorchidism
      • Defects in relaxin receptor 2 are a cause of cryptorchidism; also known as impaired testicular descent. [9]
  • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

    • The PTH2 receptor is most likely to function in the brain and pancreas where its mRNA is particularly abundant, and possibly in the testis and placenta. [10]
    • (PTH2 receptor mRNA) ... is also detected in pancreas, placenta and lung on northern blots [11]
  • Receptor: steroidogenic factor 1

    • The presence of potential SF-l binding sites in the promoter regions of nonadrenal steroidogenic enzymes and the expression of SF-1 in ovary and testis suggested that SF-l might also contribute to steroidogenic enzyme gene expression in gonadal tissue [12]