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Details for anatomical structure: brain stem

EndoNet ID: ENC00183

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brain stem, brainstem, Truncus encephali

General information

it consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon; contains all nuclei of cranial nerves and the reticular formation, which is the location of important neuronal centres (controlling respiration, heart rate and blod pressure); that's why even little brain stem lesions are mostly life-threatening

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0016706

Larger structures

  • brain
  • central_nerve_system_element


  • reticular_part_of_substantia_nigra
  • glial_cell_of_central_nervous_system
  • astrocyte
  • microglial_cell_in_central_nervous_system
  • oligodendrocyte
  • red_nucleus
  • compact_part_of_substantia_nigra
  • substantia_nigra
  • posterior_raphe_nucleus_of_midbrain
  • medulla_oblongata
  • tegmentum_of_mesencephalon
  • bergmann_glia

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: NPY

  • Hormone: serotonin

  • Hormone: NRG-1

    • NRG-1 expression was also being present in putative serotonergic neurons of the raphe and dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, indicating that NRG-1 expression is not limited to any particular neurotransmitter-defined class of neurons. [1]
  • Hormone: FGF-1 isoform 1

  • Hormone: Virodhamine

    • In the periphery, especially in tissues that express the CB2 receptor, the concentration of virodhamine was higher than anandamide. [2]
    • The concentration of virodhamine was lower than anandamide. [2]
  • Hormone: nociceptin

  • Hormone: norrin


  • Receptor: CRF-R1