Please wait ...

Details for messenger / hormone: SP

EndoNet ID: ENH00054

To link to the content of EndoNet use the EndoNet ID that is given on the detail pages in the format ENX0000, where X is a place holder for the type of the component (e. g. R for receptor or C for anatomical structure).
As URL for the linking append this ID to the detail page for this type of component.
For an hormone that would be:

It is also possible to use the search of EndoNet to link to the right detail page. The URL should look like
If the search pattern is unambigious the user is directed to the corresponding detail page.


  • SP
  • substance P
  • tachykinin 1 isoform delta

General information

  • Substance P is catabolized by degradative enzymes in tears to maintain the ocular surface by exerting the trophic effects of SP while avoiding undesirable effects. [1]
  • Substance P induces expression of the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 by activation of the neurokinin-1 receptor. [2]
  • SP stimulates platelet aggregation. [3]
  • Substance P, the most abundant neurokinin in the CNS, is a major modulator of the immune system. [4]
  • Human monocytes and macrophages express substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor. [5]
  • Tachykinins are active peptides which excite neurons, evoke behavioral responses, are potent vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles. [6]
  • Substance P (SP) interacts with the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) G-protein-coupled receptor. [7]


Hormone function

  • CNS function
    • pain
      • neurotransmitter

      Chemical classification

      • hormone
        • genome-encoded
          • peptide neurotransmitters
            • tachykinins


        Substance P

        UniProt P20366

        Links to other resources

        UniProt P20366
        Ensembl ENST00000414974
        KEGG hsa:6863


          Cellneurokinin-2 receptorneuropilin 1NK-3RSPR
          blood vessel Present
          • excess of capillary formation
          • patterning of blood vessels
          bone marrow Present
          brain Present
          • axon guidance
          corpus striatum Present
          • sensory perception of pain
          glomerulus Present
          • induction of podocyte apoptosis
          • formation of glomerular filter barrier
          • inhibition of glomerular capillary lumen development
          • patterning of blood vessels
          • positive regulation of apoptosis
          heart Present
          • patterning of blood vessels
          kidney Present
          • inhibition of ureteric bud branching
          • excess of endothelial cells
          • podocyte differentiation
          • cell differentiation
          • acute nephrotic range proteinuria
          lung Present
          mammary gland Present
          pancreas Present
          placenta Present
          podocyte Present
          skeleton muscle Present