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Details for anatomical structure: pancreas

EndoNet ID: ENC00102

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pancreas, , Pankreas

General information

An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen; it secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine and from its endocrine part the internal secretions, insulin and glucagon

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0038905

Larger structures

  • digestive_system


  • D_cell
  • acinar_cell_of_pancreas
  • alpha_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
  • beta_cell_of_islet_of_Langerhans
  • G_cell
  • macrophage
  • pancreatic_islets
  • fibroblast

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: lipocalin 2

    • NGAL was found in a variety of normal and pathological human tissues (cell type-specific pattern of expression in bronchus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, kidney, prostate gland, and thymus). [1]
  • Hormone: FGF-2

    • Human pancreatic precursor cells secrete FGF2 to stimulate clustering into hormone-expressing islet-like cell aggregates. [2]
  • Hormone: C-C motif chemokine 2

    • Human islets release monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), one of the most powerful macrophage chemokines, which may impair the fate of a transplant. [3]
  • Hormone: CXCL11

  • Hormone: MCP-2

  • Hormone: MDC

  • Hormone: hepcidin

  • Hormone: BMP2

  • Hormone: MPIF-1

  • Hormone: sFRP-3

  • Hormone: Dkk1

  • Hormone: SFRP1

  • Hormone: sFRP-2

  • Hormone: sFRP-5

  • Hormone: sclerostin

  • Hormone: laminin alpha-5 chain

  • Hormone: secretin

  • Hormone: TNFSF12

  • Hormone: APOD

  • Hormone: BAFF

  • Hormone: WISP1

  • Hormone: fractalkine

  • Hormone: SEMA4D

  • Hormone: IL-17D

  • Hormone: GRP

  • Hormone: CYR61

  • Hormone: uteroglobin

  • Hormone: BD-1

    • Pancreas and kidney expressed high levels of hBD-1. [4]
  • Hormone: ECM1a

  • Hormone: betacellulin

  • Hormone: REG1A

  • Hormone: IL-17B

  • Hormone: IL-28A

  • Hormone: IL-28B

  • Hormone: IL-29

  • Hormone: FAM3A

  • Hormone: VEGFB

  • Hormone: Syntaxin-4

  • Hormone: pancreatic alpha-amylase

    Influenced by:

    • CCK-1
      in pancreas
      • Binding of CCk to CCK-A receptors stimulates amylase release from the pancreas.


  • Receptor: GL-R

    Induced phenotype:

    • Glucagonoma
      • Glucagonoma is a tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in an overproduction of the hormone glucagon. Alpha cell tumors are commonly associated with glucagonoma syndrome. [5]
  • Receptor: activin receptor type I

  • Receptor: galanin receptor 3

  • Receptor: neurotensin receptor type 1

  • Receptor: PGI receptor

  • Receptor: TLR3

  • Receptor: leptin receptor

    Induced phenotype:

    • non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
      • In mutant mouse models, leptin deficiency or resistance, respectively, results in severe obesity and the development of a syndrome resembling NIDDM. One of the earliest manifestations in these mutant mice is hyperinsulinemia. [6]


    • insulin
      • Functional leptin receptor is present in pancreatic islets and suggest that leptin overproduction, particularly from abdominal adipose tissue, may modify directly both basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. [7]
  • Receptor: angiotensin receptor 2

  • Receptor: CD44 isoform 1

  • Receptor: GLP-1R

  • Receptor: frizzled 1

  • Receptor: frizzled 3

  • Receptor: frizzled 10

  • Receptor: frizzled 2

  • Receptor: frizzled 8

  • Receptor: frizzled 7

  • Receptor: PTC1

  • Receptor: neuropilin 1

  • Receptor: NPY4-R

  • Receptor: CD72

  • Receptor: CysLTR1

  • Receptor: GRP-R

    Induced phenotype:

    • positive regulation of pancreatic juice secretion
      • GRP stimulates pancreatic exocrine secretion [8]
    • regulation of epithelial cell proliferation
      • Low doses of bombesin act directly at the acinar cell or through release of non-CCK growth factors whereas high doses of bombesin act in part through CCK release. [9]
      • Bombesin stimulates the growth of normal pancreas [10]
  • Receptor: NMU-R2

  • Receptor: PACAP-R-1


    • insulin
      • The signaling phenotype of PACAPR TM4 (Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide transmembrane domain IV) is characteristic of the PACAP receptor involved in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β islets, a tissue expressing transcripts for PACAPR TM4 but not for PACAPR or its longer splice variant forms. These findings are consistent with a role of PACAPR TM4 in the physiological control of insulin release by PACAP in β-islet cells. [11]
  • Receptor: IL-10R-alpha

  • Receptor: CaSR

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of serum calcium levels
      • The CasR regulates the calcium concentration in the pancreatic juice by triggering ductal electrolyte and fluid secretion. [12]
    • regulation of pancreatic ductal cells
      • The activation of CaSR causes the decrease of pancreatic ductal cell proliferation (elvated extracellular Ca2+). [12]
  • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v2

  • Receptor: IL-28R-alpha-v1

  • Receptor: MRC2

  • Receptor: CCK-1

    Induced phenotype:

    • mitogen activity
      • The gastrointestinal peptide hormone Cholecystokinin functions as major physiological pancreatic secretagogue and pancreatic acinar cell mitogen. [13]
    • positive regulation of pancreatic juice secretion
      • In humans strong evidence suggests CCK1R activation is involved in the regulation of numerous physiological processes, including stimulation of pancreatic secretion. [14]


    • pancreatic alpha-amylase
      • Binding of CCk to CCK-A receptors stimulates amylase release from the pancreas.
  • Receptor: PRLR

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of glucose metabolic process
      • PRL is known to have direct effects on pancreatic function, increasing insulin secretion, decreasing glucose threshold for insulin secretion, and increasing glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 . [15]
    • positive regulation of cell proliferation
      • PRL induces proliferation of beta-cells of the pancreas. [16]


    • insulin
      • PRL is known to have direct effects on pancreatic function, increasing insulin secretion and decreasing glucose threshold for insulin secretion. [17]
  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

  • Receptor: Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

  • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

  • Receptor: parathyroid hormone 2 receptor

    • The PTH2 receptor is most likely to function in the brain and pancreas. [18]
    • (PTH2 receptor mRNA) ... is also detected in pancreas, placenta and lung on northern blots [19]