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Details for anatomical structure: duodenum

EndoNet ID: ENC00035

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duodenum, , Duodenum

General information

The first, shortest and widest part of small intestine, it is about 25 cm in length; extending from the pylorus to the junction with the jejunum at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra on the left side; it is divided into the superior part, the first part of which is the duodenal cap, the descending part, into which the bile and pancreatic ducts open, the horizontal part and the ascending part, terminating at the duodenojejunal junction

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0023931

Larger structures

  • parts_of_human_body
  • small_intestine
  • digestive_system


  • smooth_muscle_cell
  • mesenchyme_cell

Secreted hormones

  • Hormone: MCH

  • Hormone: GRP

  • Hormone: VIP

    • VIP-positive cells were detected in a crypt of the human duodenum. [1]
  • Hormone: EGF

  • Hormone: GIP

    • Positive GIP cells contained large round, or sometimes irregular, electron-dense, secretory granules, many of these possessed the characteristic dense centralcores, surrounded by a lighter matrix. On the basis of the characteristic appearance of the granules, the cells were identified as K cells. [2]


  • Receptor: neurotensin receptor type 1

    Induced phenotype:

    • lipid digestion
  • Receptor: transferrin receptor 2

    Induced phenotype:

    • regulation of iron ion transmembrane transport
      • TfR2 is a key regulatory molecule that interacts functionally with Hemochromatosis Gene Product in a specialized pathway controlling iron absorption in mammals. The localization and molecular interactions of endogenous Hemochromatosis Gene Product and TfR2 proteins was examined in human and murine intestinal tissue and cells. [3]
  • Receptor: GRP-R

  • Receptor: PRLR