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Details for anatomical structure: immune system

EndoNet ID: ENC00055

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Synonyms

immune system, ,

General information

An intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components which provides a defense (immune response) against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells

Links to other resources

Cytomer cy0014686

Larger structures

    Substructures

    • sebaceous_glands
    • cell_of_apocrine_sweat_gland
    • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues_follicular
    • T-lymphocyte
    • blood
    • memory_cell_T
    • tegmentum_of_mesencephalon
    • dendritic_cell_in_lymphoid_tissues
    • epidermis
    • skin
    • stromal_cell_of_bone_marrow
    • astrocyte
    • lymphocyte
    • tonsil
    • mesenchyme_cell
    • macrophage
    • basket_cell
    • microglial_cell_in_central_nervous_system
    • oligodendrocyte
    • cerebellum
    • substantia_nigra
    • bone_marrow
    • medulla_oblongata
    • bergmann_glia
    • endothelial_cell
    • helper_T_cell_Th1
    • leukocyte
    • killer_T_cell
    • eosinophil_granulocyte
    • olfactory_bulb
    • helper_T_cell_Th2
    • red_blood_cell
    • mast_cell
    • alveolar_macrophage
    • B-lymphocyte
    • glial_cell_of_central_nervous_system
    • platelet
    • lymphoblast
    • lymph_node
    • neutrophil_granulocyte
    • prolymphocyte
    • osteoclast
    • spleen
    • fat_cell_of_brown_fat
    • Golgi_cell
    • osteoblast
    • monocyte
    • sweat_glands
    • compact_part_of_substantia_nigra
    • posterior_raphe_nucleus_of_midbrain
    • fibroblast
    • cerebellar_cortex
    • fat_cell
    • cell:plasma_cell
    • serum
    • granular_layer_of_cerebellar_cortex
    • Purkinje_cell
    • suppressor_T_cell
    • melanocyte
    • reticular_part_of_substantia_nigra
    • smooth_muscle_cell
    • thymocyte
    • red_nucleus
    • thymus
    • mesodermal_cell
    • eccrine_sweat_glands
    • killer_cell
    • blood_myeloid_cell
    • basophil_granulocyte
    • neuron
    • osteocyte

    Secreted hormones

    • Hormone: NmU-25

    • Hormone: leukocystatin

    Receptors

    • Receptor: PPARgamma1

      • PPARγ1 has a broader expression pattern that extends to settings such as the gut, brain, vascular cell and specific kinds of immune and inflammatory cells. [1]
    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1

      Induced phenotype:

      • positive regulation of chemotaxis
        • The effect of S1P on S1PR1-mediated chemotaxis can depend on S1P concentration in vitro; low concentrations of S1P promote chemotaxis. [2]
      • negative regulation of chemotaxis
        • The effect of S1P on S1PR1-mediated chemotaxis can depend on S1P concentration in vitro; high concentrations of S1P seem to be inhibitory. This inhibitory effect might partly be due to the downregulation of S1PR1 by high concentrations of S1P. [3]
      • regulation of leukocyte migration
        • S1PR1 controls the exit of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from non-lymphoid peripheral tissues to the draining lymphatics. [4]
      • regulation of leukocyte migration
        • S1P signalling has a role in both the homing of immune cells to lymphoid organs, and in controlling their egress into blood and lymph. [5]
        • S1PR1 is decisive for the exit of mature thymocytes — both conventional T cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells — from the thymus. [6]
    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 3

    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2

    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 4

    • Receptor: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 5

    • Receptor: Ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor 1

    • Receptor: G-protein coupled receptor 4

    • Receptor: Psychosine receptor

    • Receptor: PRLR

      Induced phenotype:

      • rheumatoid arthritis
        • Prolactin has been shown to be increases and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as rheumatoid arthritis. [7]
        • Children with antinuclear antibodies seropositive juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have elevated serum levels of the immunostimulatory hormone prolactin. [7]
      • graft-versus-host disease
        • Prolactin is released by mononuclear leucocytes and is involved in lymphocyte activation. It plays a hitherto unrecognized role in the pathogenesis of GVHD in humans. [8]
        • Prolactin has been shown to be increased in and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as graft-versus-host disease. [8]
      • adjuvant arthritis
        • Prolactin has been shown to be increases and to effect a number of autoimmune states, such as adjuvant arthritis. [9]
    Reference