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Details for messenger / hormone: PGE2

EndoNet ID: ENH00338

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  • PGE2
  • prostaglandin E2
  • dinoprostone
  • 9-oxo-11R,15S-dihydroxy-5Z,13E-prostadienoic acid
  • 7-[3(R)-Hydroxy-2(R)-(3(S)-hydroxy-1(E)-octenyl-5-oxocyclopentan-1(R)-yl]-5(Z)-heptenoic acid

General information

  • PGE2 is an important autocrine and paracrine regulator of bone formation and resorption. [1]
  • PGE2 aggravates histamine-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. [2]
  • PGE2 products of cyclooxygenase-2, which provides important anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions in treating patients with inflammatory liver diseases. [3]
  • PGE2 acts in synergism with the epidermal growth factor by modulating mitogenic mechanisms downstream of the receptor. [4]
  • PGE2 exerts pro-oncogenic actions through stimulating the beta-catenin/T cell factor-mediated transcription, which plays important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. [5]
  • PGE2 accelerates the recovery process of cutaneous barrier disruption. [6]
  • PGE2 and PAF, and ligation of VnR as well, contribute to amplify viral growth in HIV-1-infected macrophages upon uptake of apoptotic cells. [7]
  • PGE2 and PGA2 (Prostaglandin A2) costimulate the TNF-alpha-induced phenotypic maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs. [8]
  • PGE2 and histamine augment angiogenesis in the inflammatory granulation tissue by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor production. [9]
  • Cementoblasts downregulate their mineralization ability and upregulate metalloproteinase-13 production through the PGE2-EP4 pathway. [10]
  • The decrease in the catabolism of PGE2 in the lung is partly responsible for the failure of indomethacin therapy for PDA(patent ductus arteriosus). [11]
  • PGE2-mediated inhibition of LTB4 synthesis by alveolar macrophages regulates the initiation of lung inflammation. [12]


Hormone function

  • homeostasis
    • cardiovascular control
    • immune response
      • activation

      Chemical classification

      • hormone
        • not genome-encoded
          • eicosanoids/fatty acid derivatives
            • prostanoids
              • prostaglandins


        Links to other resources

        KEGG C00584
        LIPID MAPS LMFA03010003
        LipidBank XPR1401
        • Anatomical structure: propria_mucosa_of_bronchus

          Influenced by:

          • TGF-beta type I receptor
            in propria_mucosa_of_bronchus
            • In pulmonary fibroblasts, TGF-beta1 stimulates matrix synthesis while inducing COX expression and PGE2 production. [13]
        • Anatomical structure: lipocyte_of_liver

        • Anatomical structure: cell_of_endometrium_of_uterus

          • Expression of PGE synthase and synthesis of PGE2 were localized to glandular epithelial and endothelial cells in both basalis and functionalis regions of the human endometrium. [14]
        • Anatomical structure: muscularis_of_uterus

          • Interestingly, stromal expression of PGE synthase and synthesis of PGE2 are predominantly localized in the functionalis layer of the endometrium and are minimal in the basalis and myometrial regions. [14]
        • Anatomical structure: fibroblast

          • The CD40-CD40L interaction has been shown to stimulate prostaglandin and IL-8 release from fibroblasts. [15]
        • Anatomical structure: bone_marrow

        • Anatomical structure: Kupffer_cell_stellate_cell_of_liver

        • Anatomical structure: osteoblast

          Influenced by:

          • IL-4Ralpha
            in osteoblast
          • bradykinin receptor B2
            in osteoblast
            • Bradykinin increased the synthesis of both IL-6 and PGE(2) and the increase in both was blocked by HOE140 (B2R antagonist). [17]
            • [17]
          • bradykinin receptor B1
            in osteoblast
            • The B2 receptors are linked to a burst of prostanoid release, whereas the B1 receptors mediate a delayed prostaglandin response [18]
        • Anatomical structure: epithelial_cell

          • The invasion of epithelial cells in vitro by C. parvum results in the rapid expression of anti-microbial peptides (e.g., beta-defensins) and the inflammatory chemokines including IL-8, TNF-alpha, and prostaglandin E2, etc. [19]
        • Anatomical structure: monocyte

        • Anatomical structure: adipose_tissue


        beta cell of islet of Langerhans Present
        • insulin
        brain Present
        cell of endometrium of uterus Present
        circulatory system hematopoietic system Present
        kidney Present
        large intestine Present
        lung Present
        • Pulmonary venous smooth muscle contraction
        monocyte Present
        • TNF-alpha
        • IL-12
        • TNF-alpha
        oesophagus Present
        • visceral pain hypersensitivity
        osteoblast Present
        • interleukin 6
        • amphiregulin
        • interleukin 6
        • amphiregulin
        osteoclast Present
        placenta Present
        skeleton muscle Present
        small intestine Present
        spleen Present
        thymus Present
        uterus Present